The Forest Stewardship Council

The Forest Stewardship Council® is an international organisation promoting responsible forest management. FSC® has developed principles for forest management, which may be used for certifying the management of forest holdings, and a system of tracing, verifying and labelling timber and wood products which originate from FSC-certified forests.
Key Points:

  • The FSC logo appears on products in three distinct types of label:
  • FSC 100% – for products that contain only certified virgin fibre.
  • FSC Mix – for products with a proportion of FSC certified virgin fibre and the rest either from non-certified controlled wood or recycled sources.
  • FSC Recycled – All the fibre in the product is reclaimed material with a minimum of 85% being post-consumer waste.


NAPM Recycled Mark

This is the National Association of Paper Merchants’ scheme for designating a paper as recycled.

Key Points:

  • To qualify a product must contain at least 75% recycled fibre, which can be either pre- or post-consumer waste.
  • The other 25% can be mill broke or virgin fibre.



The PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification) is a framework for the mutual recognition of national or regional forest certification schemes, rather than being a specific scheme in its own right.

Key Points:

  • A minimum of 70% of the fibre must be PEFC approved for the product to carry the logo.
  • A chain of custody scheme and product logo are available.
  • There is widespread support amongst those in the forest and paper industry, who view it as more flexible, economic and user friendly.